panel members are experts with sufficiently broad areas of
expertise to qualify them for service on most or all of the VCCEP
panels. Core panel
members add continuity to the peer consultation program and will
be asked to commit to serve on panels for one year.
brief biography is provided below for each of the 2005 panel members.
Elaine A. Hubal
Ph.D. Chemical Engineering
EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory
Biological Science, D.A.B.T.
EPA, Department of Toxic Substances Control
Ph.D. Anatomy and Teratology, D.A.B.F.E., D.A.B.F.M.
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
Michael L. Dourson
Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
Ph.D. Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology
European Commission Joint Research Centre
Dr. John Balbus is currently the Director of the
Environmental Health Program for Environmental Defense, where he
is working on projects related to antibiotic resistance, health
impacts of urban sprawl and transportation policy, and chemical
testing and right-to-know. Before
his current position, he served as the founding Director of the
Center for Risk Science and Public Health, as well as an Associate
Professor at the
Balbus' research activities at the Center for Risk Science and
Public Health included addressing susceptibility in risk
assessment and risk management, children's susceptibility to
waterborne contaminants, and health impacts of climate change.
Dr. Balbus was a founding co-director of the
for Children's Health and the Environment, one of
11 Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units funded by the
U.S. EPA and ATSDR.
Dr. Balbus received his M.D. from the
, an M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins School of
Hygiene and Public Health, and an A.B. in Biochemistry from
completed residencies in internal medicine at
and in occupational and environmental medicine at
currently holds adjunct faculty appointments at the Johns Hopkins
Bloomberg School of Public Health and the George Washington
University School of Public Health and Health Services.
Balbus is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine,
and the American Board of Preventive Medicine, specialty in
Occupational Medicine. In
addition to Dr. Balbus' extensive professional and academic
career, he has published numerous articles relating to a variety
of topics in risk assessment, public health, and environmental
Christopher is currently Staff
Toxicologist in the Human & Ecological Risk Division,
Department of Toxic Substances Control, California Environmental
Protection Agency. His
responsibilities include the review and approval of human health
and ecological risk assessments at military facilities, hazardous
waste sites, and other permitted facilities in the state of
Dr. Christopher provides technical support in matters
related to toxicology and risk assessment to the state's Site
Mitigation and Hazardous Waste Management Programs and also to the
Office of Military Facilities.
In this capacity he has participated in environmental
cleanups at dozens of private sector sites and Federal facilities
of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and NASA.
He is an expert on ambient concentrations of metals in
soils and was principal author of
a statewide guidance document on distinguishing ambient
concentrations of metals from releases of metals to soil.
Dr. Christopher is experienced in constructing
multi-pathway risk assessments to identify numerical criteria for
classifying hazardous levels of organic chemicals in waste, and he
methods in several different
exposure settings to identify levels protective of human health.
Christopher has served as an invited peer reviewer for numerous
governmental, private industrial, and consultant organizations.
During the last few years, these include the U.S. EPA for
methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE); Health Canada for acrolein, acrylamide,
acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, ethylene glycol, ethylene oxide,
N,N-dimethylformamide, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and nonyl phenol
and its ethoxylates; the American Chemistry Council for methods of
assessing cumulative risk for chemical mixtures; and the National
Institute of Justice for the health effects of non-lethal weapons,
including pepper spray and the TASER.
He has served on peer review panels for Toxicology
Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), most recently including indoor air effects following the
disaster and risk assessments for
acrylonitrile and ammonium perchlorate.
Dr. Christopher is a peer reviewer for the journals Toxicological
Sciences, Risk Analysis, Human
and Ecological Risk Assessment, and
CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology.
joining the California EPA, Dr. Christopher was Chief Toxicologist
at ICF Kaiser Engineers in
where he conducted risk
assessments of chemical contamination for clients in the public
and private sectors. He
also worked for IT Corporation in
performing risk assessments of
mixed chemical and nuclear wastes.
Earlier in his career, he worked for other governmental and
private organizations where he gained experience managing animal
toxicity studies of medical devices, cancer drugs, and irradiated
Dr. Christopher holds a
B.S. in Biology from
, a M.A. in
Pharmacology from Stanford, and a Ph.D. in Biological Science from
He has been a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology
since 1984 and a Past President of the Risk Assessment Specialty
Section of the Society of Toxicology.
John DeSesso is Senior
Fellow and Director of the Biomedical Research Institute at
Mitretek Systems. He
holds adjunct faculty appointments at Georgetown University School
Graduate School of Public Health at
He is Fellow,
Forensic Examiners; Diplomate, American Board of Forensic
Examiners (Specialties: Toxicology, Anatomy, and Risk Assessment);
Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine; and is Certified
in Homeland Security – Level III.
Dr. DeSesso has published over 200 papers and reports and
has presented at over 150 conferences and symposia on topics
including teratology, toxicology, ecological risk assessment, and
human health effects of environmental agents.
He directs commercially and governmentally funded public
interest research efforts on the potential adverse effects of
environmental agents. Projects
include assessing the potential for inorganic arsenic
contamination to cause human birth defects, investigating the
possible reproductive toxicity of a commonly used ingredient of
consumer products, and assessing the possible teratogenicity of a
novel ingredient used in veterinary medicine.
He was the chair of the EPA/International Life Sciences
Institute (ILSI) Work Group on Bioavailability and of the
Peer-review Panel for the EPA Office
of Research and Development’s Strategy of Children’s Health
Research Program. He
was a member of the Center for Evaluation of Risks to Human
Reproduction Expert Panel on Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol.
Dr. DeSesso was employed for 15 years by The MITRE
Corporation, where he wrote Health Hazard Assessments for the EPA
Office of Toxic Substances in support of its Pre-Manufacturing
Notification Program. For
EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs, Dr. DeSesso analyzed toxicity
data submitted for registration of pesticides.
For the EPA Office of Health and Environmental Assessment,
he wrote assessment documents concerning the carcinogenicity,
toxicity, and reproductive effects of existing chemical
substances. For the
FDA, Dr. DeSesso led a team that assessed the relevance to human
health of direct bladder exposure studies conducted in rodents.
He was named to the EPA/ILSI National Work Group on Rodent
Bladder Cancer, where he helped to establish rational and
scientific approaches for applying rodent bladder cancer study
results to human health risk assessment. He
also served on a team that studied the health effects of refined
menhaden oil during FDA’s consideration of its generally
recognized as safe (GRAS) status.
In support of the U.S. Air Force, Dr. DeSesso provides key
expertise in human health risk assessment, including negotiation
of risk assessment protocols on a site-specific basis.
He authored the Air Force approach to ecological risk.
Dr. DeSesso co-authored a hazard evaluation of
trichloroethylene that addressed its potential human
carcinogenicity and co-edited a monograph that assembled the views
of various stakeholders.
to joining MITRE in 1981, Dr. DeSesso was Assistant Professor of
Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Cincinnati College
of Medicine. He is
active in 14 scientific societies and was elected President of the
Teratology Society (1994-95) and of the Mid Atlantic Reproduction
and Teratology Association (MARTA; 2001-02). He served as an
Executive Board member of the Federation of American Societies of
Experimental Biology (FASEB; 1999- 2004). Dr. DeSesso is a
frequent contributor to continuing education courses that deal
with toxicology and risk assessment.
He has provided public commentary regarding scientific
issues before Federal agencies, State legislatures and
DeSesso holds a Ph.D. in Anatomy and Teratology from the Medical
College of Virginia and an A.B. in Chemistry from
Michael Dourson directs Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
a nonprofit corporation dedicated to the best use of toxicity data
for estimating risk assessment values. TERA's
projects include the development of complex risk assessments, such
as soluble nickel salts; research into improvements of risk
methods, such as differential sensitivity of children and adults
to chemical toxicity, organizing peer review and consultation
meetings for risk assessment topics and documents; and education
and outreach on risk assessment values through lectures and data
bases, including the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER).
1996, Dr. Dourson held leadership roles in the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency for fifteen years; as chair of EPA's Reference
Dose (RfD) Work Group, charter member of the EPA's Risk Assessment
Forum and chief of the group that helped create the Integrated
Risk Information System (IRIS) in 1986.
Dourson received his Ph.D. in Toxicology from the
and a B.A. in biology from
Dr. Dourson’s research interests include investigating
methods to extrapolate toxicity data garnered on experimental
animals or healthy adults to the appropriate sensitive human
Dourson has served on and/or chaired numerous expert panels, such
as EPA’s external peer reviews for IRIS assessments, TERA’s International Toxicity
Estimates for Risk (ITER)
independent peer reviews and consultations, FDA’s Science Board
Subcommittee on Toxicology, and NSF’s Health Advisory Board.
Dr. Dourson has also organized over 16 symposia for 9
different organizations on a variety of topics.
He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology
serving on its Board as President, Vice President, and Treasurer.
He is currently Secretary for the Society for Risk
Analysis. He has also
served as president of the Dose-Response Specialty Group of the
Society for Risk Analysis, of the Society of Toxicology's
Specialty Section on Risk Assessment and of the Ohio Chapter of
the Society for Risk Analysis.
He is currently on the editorial board of three journals.
Dr Dourson has published more than 90 papers on risk assessment
methods, has co-authored over 100 government risk assessment
documents, and has made over 100 invited presentations.
Dr. Pertti (Bert) Hakkinen
Hakkinen is on the staff of the European Commission at the EC’s
Joint Research Centre (JRC) in
He is in the JRC’s Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit of
the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection where he helps
develop and manage work packages for EIS-ChemRisks, the European
Information System on risks from chemicals released from consumer
products and articles (textiles, toys, etc.).
Hakkinen is a member of the Scientific Advisory Panel of the (
served as the vice chair of this panel since March 2003.
Prior to joining the European Commission’s staff, Dr.
Hakkinen was on the staff of Toxicology Excellence for Risk
Assessment (TERA). Before
joining TERA, he worked at the Procter & Gamble Company
to provide global human exposure and risk assessment support for
numerous types of consumer products and chemicals.
While at Procter & Gamble, he chaired the Exposure
Assessment Task Group of the Chemical Manufacturers Association (
; now the
American Chemistry Council) for several years, and was a chair of
the American Chemistry Council’s Human Exposure Assessment
Technical Implementation Panel.
Hakkinen earned a B.A. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from
received his Ph.D. in Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology from
He served as a postdoctoral investigator in respiratory
toxicology, and exposure and risk assessment at the Biology
Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Dr. Hakkinen has been an invited expert or reviewer for
U.S. EPA-, Health
other associations to develop or revise human exposure assessment
guidance, resource documents, and software.
He has lectured on exposure and risk assessment, risk
perception, and risk communication at the
Hakkinen is a member of the Society of Toxicology (SOT), and a
charter member of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) and the
International Society of Exposure Analysis (ISEA).
He proposed the idea for the “Residential Exposure
Assessment. A Sourcebook, ” developed and published in 2001 via
the expertise and involvement of members of SRA’s Exposure
Assessment Specialty Group, ISEA members, and many others.
Dr. Hakkinen received SRA's Outstanding Service Award in
1996, and was elected to be a councilor of SRA in 2004.
was on the editorial board of Toxicology and was a
co-editor and co-author of the latest edition of Information
Resources in Toxicology. Further,
he is a co-editor and co-author of the upcoming new edition of the
Encyclopedia of Toxicology.
Dr. Hakkinen has authored and co-authored numerous other
publications, including ones on consumer product exposure and risk
assessments, consumer risk perceptions, toxicological
interactions, respiratory tract toxicology, and computer software
Elaine Cohen Hubal is currently on detail with U.S. EPA’s
National Human and Environmental Effects Laboratory (NHEERL).
She previously served as the Acting Associate Director for
Human Exposure Modeling in the Human Exposure and Atmospheric
Sciences Division of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research
Laboratory (NERL). In
this position, she worked to develop and direct NERL’s human
exposure modeling research program.
This research program is designed to develop modeling tools
and conduct modeling analyses to characterize and estimate human
exposure to environmental pollutants and to reduce uncertainty in
risk assessments for the general population and for highly exposed
significant focus of the lab’s human exposure research program
is on understanding and characterizing children’s residential
exposures to environmental contaminants.
She previously worked as a chemical engineer for the
Research Triangle Institute, and
and McKee. She also
served as a Predoctoral Fellow at the Chemical Industry Institute
Hubal received her Ph.D. and M.S. in Chemical Engineering from
and a S.B. in Chemical Engineering from Massachusetts Institute of
Dr. Hubal has served on a variety
workgroups, panels, and committees.
She currently serves as a member of EPA’s Risk Assessment
Forum, the Study Design Working Group for the National
Children’s Study, ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences
Institute Biomonitoring Steering Team, and the Occupational and
Environmental Exposures of Skin to Chemicals (OEESC) 2005 Program
Hubal’s current research interests focus on characterizing
exposure-to-dose relationships and enhancing quantitative risk
assessment through application of computational tools and a
systems approach. Her
general research interest is on reducing uncertainty in risk
assessment with a specific focus on children’s exposure.
She has designed and conducted studies to evaluate dermal
exposure assessment approaches and collect exposure factor data in
support of the Food Quality Protection Act.
She has developed and worked with a variety of
computational models to describe the simultaneous mass transport
and reaction of inhaled gases in the airway lining.
Dr. Hubal has also worked on the development of a modeling
platform to predict contaminant fate and transport of
environmental pollutants to perform exposure assessments in
support of the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule, and conducted
research in the area of industrial pollution prevention by
developing a framework to evaluate the environmental impact of
pollution prevention activities that directly relates the energy
requirements to process air, water, and solid waste emissions.
Dr. Hubal has
published in the areas of children’s exposure and human health
Dr. Sam Kacew
Sam Kacew is a Professor in the Department of Cellular and
Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, as well as a scientist of
His responsibilities include teaching medical students and
graduate students the techniques required to write and publish
peer-review papers. His
current research involves the effects of chemical contaminants in
breast milk on infants, the role of confounding factors in
toxicity testing, as well as the basis for differences in
responsiveness to chemicals between infants and adults.
Kacew received his Ph.D. in Pharmacology from the
He served as a Postdoctoral Fellow for the Medical Research
Council of Canada at the
Dr. Kacew was certified in 1994 as a Fellow of Academy of
Toxicological Sciences. He
has received numerous awards, including several achievement,
recognition, public communications, and travel awards from the
Society of Toxicology (SOT), the United States-China Foundation,
and the National Science Council of the Republic of China.
Kacew has served on numerous expert panels and committees,
including as a member of the National Advisory Committee on
Environmental Contaminants and the Implications for Child Health,
and as a member of the National Academy of Sciences (
Committee on Toxicology and Chair of the National Academy of
Sciences Subcommittee on Iodotrifluoromethane.
He has also served as a chairman for a variety of
symposiums, panels, and committees including the SOT Annual
Meeting’s General Toxicology Session, the Federation of American
Societies for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, an Assessment
Panel for the Canadian Council on Animal Care, a SOT Symposium on
Use of Moderate Dietary Restriction in Safety Assessment, and a
SOT Symposium on the Role of Diet and Obesity in Endocrine
has presented hundreds of invited lectures for a variety of
federal and state government agencies, colleges and universities,
private companies, and international organizations.
He was an invited participant to the American Society for
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Meeting, the Federation
of American Societies for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, the
International Life Sciences Institute, the Chalk River Nuclear
Labs, Turkey Society of Biochemistry, Society of Toxicology of
Taiwan and the Korea Society of Toxicology.
Kacew is on a number of grant committees and has served as an
external referee for grants and fellowships for a wide variety of
organizations and government agencies. He is currently the
Editor-in-Chief the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
an Associate Editor for Toxicology and
Applied Pharmacology, an assistant editor for TOMES (Micromedex, Inc.),
Guest Editor for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology special issue
on Toxicological Reviews in Fetal Childhood Development as well as
a member of the editorial board of a number of other journals.
Dr. Kacew has over 140 publications in peer-reviewed
journals and books in the area of toxicology, risk assessment, and
children’s health. He
has also served as an editor for a number of books on toxicology
Chad Sandusky is currently Director of Research and senior
toxicology advisor to the Physicians Committee for Responsible
Medicine (PCRM), a non-profit organization that promotes good
nutrition, conducts clinical trials and promotes nonanimal
experimental methods in medical and scientific research.
For PCRM, Dr. Sandusky coordinates the review and
preparation of comments on the EPA's High Production Volume
Challenge Program (HPV) and Voluntary Children's Chemical
Evaluation Program (VCCEP) chemical assessments.
As such, he stresses the weight-of-evidence approach in
these assessments and the development of exposure scenarios as key
to the success of these programs. He is actively engaged in
identifying methods which use alternatives to animal testing to
meet the needs of the safety assessments, including tests
undergoing validation at the
Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and the Interagency Coordinating
Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM).
Dr. Sandusky was the past Manager of Toxicology and
Risk Assessment at TAS and ENVIRON and has extensive experience at
both the EPA and as a consultant in pesticide toxicology as well
as exposure and risk assessments.
For example, he evaluated the toxicology of pesticides and
extrapolated these effects in risk assessments; directed the
dietary exposure and risk assessments for agrochemicals and other
potentially toxic residues in foods using the TAS Dietary exposure
software; served as toxicology team leader and senior author of
numerous EPA documents, including Registrations Standards and
Position Documents; and since the passage of the FQPA in August
1996, coordinated the review and assessment of numerous
agrochemicals to address the full range of new requirements,
including: assessing aggregate exposure from multiple pathways
(e.g., drinking water and residential use),
cumulative exposure to chemicals with a common mode of
action, accounting for potential sensitivity to infants and
children, and assessing the potential for endocrine disruption.
Sandusky has extensive international experience including the
coordination and submission of dossiers for the EU Reauthorization
process under EU 91/414 and presentation of the results to member
states. Dr. Sandusky
also represented the
Codex Committee for Pesticide Residues (CCPR) in
several years. In
addition, he also coordinated preparation and reviews of dossiers
for chemicals approved as GRAS as well as directed the preparation
and submission of Food Contact Notifications (FCNs) to the FDA.
Currently, Dr. Sandusky represents the International
Coalition of Animal Protection Organizations (ICAPO) at the OECD
Existing Chemicals Programme.
Sandusky received his Ph.D. in Pharmacology from the
He served as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Georgetown
University Schools of Medicine and Dentistry,
He is currently a member of the Society of Toxicology, and
was previously affiliated with such organizations as the
International Society of Exposure Analysis and the Society of
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Kimberly M. Thompson
Kimberly M. Thompson is Associate Professor of Risk Analysis and
Decision Science in the Departments of Health Policy and
Management and Society, Human Development, and Health at the
Harvard School of Public Health. She is the Director of the Kid
Risk Project that seeks to improve the lives of children by using
analytical methods to characterize children's risks and strategies
to reduce those risks. Dr.
Thompson directs a professional education course on Probabilistic
Risk Analysis: Assessment, Management, and Communication, and she
seeks to effectively integrate technological, social, political,
legal, and economic issues into risk analyses that inform public
policy and improve decision making.
Her research interests focus on the issues related to
developing and applying quantitative methods for risk assessment
and risk management, and consideration of the public policy
implications associated with including uncertainty and variability
in risk characterization.
Over the last decade, for both private and public clients Dr.
Thompson has consulted on computer applications, projects
concerning environmental quality, fate and transport of toxic
chemicals in the environment, analysis of remedial alternatives at
landfills and abandoned sites, efforts to characterize uncertainty
and variability in risks, and development of white papers for the
EPA on topics related to children’s risks.
Dr. Thompson’s recent consulting includes work with the
MIT Lincoln Laboratory and
on projects related to biodefense.
Dr. Thompson’s most recent book Risk In Perspective:
Insight and Humor in the Age of Risk Management focuses on
empowering consumers to take charge of their health, a theme that
she started in her first book, Overkill, which focused on
helping consumers manage microbiological risks.
received a Sc.D. in Environmental Health from
. She received a M.S.
and B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. Dr.
Thompson has served on several National Academy of Sciences
committees and subcommittees and a number of other expert review
panels. She has been
an invited presenter at a variety of workshops, conferences, and
annual meetings, such as the Boston Mayor’s Symposium on Youth
Development, the Congressional Research Services Children’s
Environmental Risks: Federal Activities in Perspective Symposium
on Risk Assessment and Risk Communication, and a NIH/NIEHS
Workshop on the Role of Human Exposure Assessment in the
Prevention of Environmental Disease.
She also served as the chair of the Exposure Assessment
Specialty Group and is currently a Councilor of the Society for
Risk Analysis. She won
the SRA Chauncey Starr Award in 2004 and she is the SRA/Sigma Xi
Thompson has written over 50 peer-reviewed journal publications in
the areas of human health modeling, probabilistic risk assessment,
children’s health and risk communication.
She has also reviewed manuscripts for over a dozen
journals, including the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental
Health, Risk Analysis, Health Policy, and the Journal of the
American Medical Association.